Anoth­er dimen­sion of the the­o­ret­i­cal debate of the treaty is its place with­in the frame­work and the rela­tion­ship to a broad­er law of oblig­a­tions. Oblig­a­tions are tra­di­tion­al­ly sub­di­vid­ed into con­tracts that are wil­ful­ly signed to a spe­cif­ic per­son or per­son and in the event of incom­pe­tence based on the unlaw­ful harm of cer­tain pro­tect­ed inter­ests, imposed pri­mar­i­ly by law and gen­er­al­ly due to a wider group of per­sons. In addi­tion to Sec­tion 23, Sec­tion 24 also men­tions ille­gal con­tracts under the Indi­an Con­tracts Act. Under this pro­vi­sion, con­tracts with con­sid­er­a­tions or objects, some of which are ille­gal, are con­sid­ered ille­gal. In addi­tion, one or more con­sid­er­a­tions are ille­gal for a sin­gle pur­pose of the con­tract; such an agree­ment is con­sid­ered nul­ligie in the eyes of the law. The court may issue an order of the “spe­cif­ic ben­e­fit” that requires the per­for­mance of the con­tract. In cer­tain cir­cum­stances, a court will order a par­ty to keep its promise (a “spe­cif­ic ben­e­fit order”) or to issue an injunc­tion known as an “injunc­tion of omis­sion” that a par­ty will refrain from doing some­thing that would be con­trary to the treaty. Some ben­e­fit is avail­able for breach of a con­tract to sell land or real estate with rea­sons such that the prop­er­ty has a unique val­ue. In the Unit­ed States, through the 13th Amend­ment to the U.S. Con­sti­tu­tion, the spe­cif­ic pro­vi­sion in per­son­al ser­vice con­tracts is only legal, “as pun­ish­ment for a crime whose crim­i­nal must be wrong­ly con­vict­ed.” [144] Less fre­quent are uni­lat­er­al treaties in which one par­ty makes a promise, but the oth­er par­ty promis­es noth­ing. In these cas­es, those who accept the offer are not oblig­ed to dis­close their con­sent to the sup­pli­er. In a reward con­tract, for exam­ple, a per­son who has lost a dog could promise a reward if the dog is found through pub­li­ca­tion or oral. The pay­ment could be pack­aged in addi­tion if the dog is made alive.

Those who learn the reward are not oblig­ed to look for the dog, but if some­one finds and deliv­ers the dog, the promisor is required to pay.