The abil­i­ty to exchange licens­es with­in an enter­prise agree­ment can be very valu­able for cus­tomers. Cus­tomer pri­or­i­ties and needs are chang­ing and this capa­bil­i­ty should help min­i­mize or elim­i­nate shelf prod­uct main­te­nance costs. But is this still the case? Com­mer­cial data| All acquired autho­riza­tions (licens­es, main­te­nance, trade-ups, etc.) and cus­tomer agree­ments. Per­mis­sions give cus­tomers the right to use soft­ware of an edi­tion, ver­sion, quan­ti­ty and either for an indef­i­nite peri­od or for a lim­it­ed time, with cer­tain restric­tions. Cus­tomer agree­ments may grant rights or impose restric­tions, but gen­er­al­ly do not include usage rights (excep­tions apply to cus­tomer agree­ments that are signed after an audit and con­tain an expo­sure con­tain­ing billing licens­es). | Full­Cap met­ric relat­ed to the PVU (Proces­sors Val­ue Unit) and P/RVU (PVU-based resource unit) met­rics, accord­ing to which all proces­sors (and ker­nels) of the under­ly­ing hard­ware must be licensed. The main con sequence for IBM cus­tomers is that the vir­tu­al machine license (LPAR) must not be lim­it­ed to the vir­tu­al envi­ron­ment, but that all the under­ly­ing hard­ware must be licensed (excep­tions, see vir­tu­al­iza­tion as a means of reduc­ing the license, lim­it­ed to select­ed tech­nolo­gies). IBM‘s full capac­i­ty and under-capac­i­ty exam­ine large and com­plex pit­falls for IBM cus­tomers. Although IBM is one of the largest soft­ware com­pa­nies on the mar­ket, it has not received as much atten­tion in the past as Ora­cle. Nor­mal­ly, their audits are rather rare com­pared to oth­er providers (although their num­ber has increased in recent years), but they do not lack complexity.

This means that even if you are not audit­ed every year, you should still be pre­pared and have con­trol over your IBM license posi­tion. It all starts with under­stand­ing the basic infor­ma­tion about IBM‘s licens­es: what kind of con­tracts, prod­ucts, and met­rics IBM makes avail­able to its cus­tomers. For exam­ple, Cis­co tra­di­tion­al­ly offered large enter­pris­es a coop­er­a­tion-ori­ent­ed ELA or a secu­ri­ty-focused ELA. These agree­ments pro­vid­ed cus­tomers with a pre­mi­um prod­uct cat­a­log offer­ing license cov­er­age to all of their “knowl­edge work­ers” or “secu­ri­ty con­tent users.” Depend­ing on how the client defined their busi­ness, it would include license cov­er­age for their on-site and remote employ­ees as well as for all contractors.…